Intestinal Wall Tissue (Total 1537998 Papers Found)

The expression of the hsp16 gene family in Caenorhabditis elegans has been examined by introducing hsp16-lacZ fusions into the nematode by transformation. Transcription of the hsp16-lacZ transgenes was totally heat-shock dependent and resulted in the rapid synthesis of detectable levels of beta-galactosidase. Although the two hsp16 gene pairs of C. elegans are highly similar within both their coding and noncoding sequences, quantitative and qualitative differences in the spatial pattern of expre ...
NAD plays critical roles in various biological processes through the function of SIRT1. Although classical studies in mammals showed that nicotinic acid (NA) is a better precursor than nicotinamide (Nam) in elevating tissue NAD levels, molecular details of NAD synthesis from NA remain largely unknown. We here identified NA phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) in humans and provided direct evidence of tight link between NAPRT and the increase in cellular NAD levels. The enzyme was abundantly express ...
Donepezil hydrochloride (donepezil: E2020: (+/-)-2-[(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-indan-1-one monohydrochloride)) is a centrally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, its inhibitory effect on the activity of cholinesterase ex vivo was evaluated in the brain, plasma, erythrocytes, heart, small intestine, liver and pectoral muscle of young adult as well as aged rats, in comparison with that of tacrine (9-amin ...
Cultivation-independent microbial molecular ecology approaches were used to examine the effects of antibiotic growth promoters on the pig ileal microbiota. Five-week-old barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. Three diets meeting or exceeding the minimum nutrient requirements were fed for 5 wk and supplemented as follows: 1) negative control (no antibiotic; n = 5), 2) continuous tylosin administration (n = 5), and 3) an antibiotic rotation sequence (wk 1, chlorotetracycl ...
Chimaerarhynchus rougetae n. g., n. sp. is described fromSqualus acanthias andCentrophorus sp. from the coast of Senegal, and differs from all other trypanorhynch genera in having a chainette composed of dissimilar elements, that is, double-winged hooks alternating with pairs of hooks each with a single lateral wing. The new genus is allocated to the Gymnorhynchidae Dollfus, 1935.Patellobothrium quinquecatenatum n.g., n. sp. is described from the spiral intestine ofSphyrna mokarran from Darwin, ...
Based on a study of 26 cases and a review of the literature, lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract can be categorized into four clinicopathologic groups: focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach, focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the small intestine, focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the rectum, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract. The focal lesions are single, variably circumscribed, and produce thickening of the wall of the affected part of the viscus. While a ...
PURPOSE In a prior study the cellular uptake of folate was investigated in the retina. Recently, a new proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) in human intestine was reported. In the present study, the expression of this novel transporter in the retina was determined, the mouse orthologue was cloned from retinal tissue, and its transport function was characterized. METHODS RT-PCR and folate uptake measurements were used to detect the expression of PCFT in mouse retina and in retinal cell type ...
The diagnosed incidence of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) is increasing, and the underlying genomic mechanisms have not yet been defined. Using exome- and genome-sequence analysis of SI-NETs, we identified recurrent somatic mutations and deletions in CDKN1B, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene, which encodes p27. We observed frameshift mutations of CDKN1B in 14 of 180 SI-NETs, and we detected hemizygous deletions encompassing CDKN1B in 7 out of 50 SI-NETs, nominating p27 ...
Isotope therapy is one of the methods used in primary hyperthyroidism. The therapy is based on short-range beta radiation emitted from radioactive iodine. Radioiodine administration must always be preceded by pharmacological normalization of thyroid function. Otherwise, post-radiation thyrocyte destruction and thyroid hormones release may lead to hyperthyroidism exacerbation. Indications for radioiodine therapy in Graves-Basedow disease include recurrent hyperthyroidism after thyrostatic treatme ...
The arterial supply of the abdominal digestive organs and the developmental process were studied in 25 Japanese fetuses from 3 months to 9 months old into whose arteries latex rubber was injected. The results were as follows: 1) The branching patterns of the celiac trunk were classified into 5 types. The most common type or the complete celiac trunk was found in 18 cases (72%). Four variation types or incomplete celiac trunks were found in 7 cases (28%). 2) The rates at which the following arter ...
NK-lysin (NKL), a 78-residue antimicrobial peptide, was isolated from pig small intestine. Standard methods identified the peptide as basic, with six half-cystine residues in three intrachain disulphide bonds. The sequence showed 33% identity with a part of a putative gene product (NKG5) from activated T and NK cells, NK-lysin showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium and marked lytic activity against YAC-1, a NK sensitive tumour cell line, while sheep red bl ...
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), from green tea (Camellia sinensis), has demonstrated chemopreventive activity in animal models of carcinogenesis. Previously, we reported the bioavailability of EGCG in rats (1.6%) and mice (26.5%). Here, we report that cotreatment with a second dietary component, piperine (from black pepper), enhanced the bioavailability of EGCG in mice. Intragastric coadministration of 163.8 micromol/kg EGCG and 70.2 micromol/kg piperine to male CF-1 mice increased the pl ...
Microcystin-LR (MCYST-LR), a cyclic peptide hepatotoxin, associates with high-molecular-weight, liver cytosolic components. Repetitive cycles of heat denaturation and pronase digestion released 80 +/- 6% of the bound radiolabel from these components, parent toxin (22%), and two biotransformation products, with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) retention times of 6.7 (52%) and 5.6 (13%) min. Both parent and the biotransformed (6.7 min) toxin appeared to be covalently bound to a monome ...
BACKGROUND Malignant tumours of the gastro-intestinal tract are not as rare as previous studies suggest. Recent studies have indicated increasing incidence. OBJECTIVE To document the pattern, age and sex distribution as well as histopathology characteristics of malignant tumours of the gastro-intestinal system in Lagos and Sagamu in Southwestern Nigeria. METHODS The paraffin embedded blocks and slides as well as pathology reports of malignant tumours of the gastrointestinal (GIT) organs coll ...
Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystem immune-mediated inflammatory disorder that involves the intestine in 3%-26% of cases. Corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylic acid derivatives, immunomodulators, and more recently thalidomide and pentoxifylline have been used to treat BD with varying degrees of success. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is believed to play a pivotal role in this T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-mediated disease. Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to TNF-alpha, has been demonst ...
A wide range of digestive enzymes with different cellular location (membrane, intracellular, Lysosomal) was determined in gastrointestinal organs (stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon) as well as in undigestive organs (liver, kidney, spleen) in normal conditions and in altered functional states (fasting, refeeding). High levels of peptidase activity was noted in undigestive organs and the colon as compared to that in the small intestine. Adaptive responses were (revealed not only for a numbe ...
Animals transgenic (Tg) for reporter genes would be useful to following a given cell lineage during differentiation and regeneration processes. Here, we established a beta-galactosidase (lacZ) Tg rat to use as a tool for regenerative research. Strong lacZ expression was observed in the skeletal muscles, myocardium, pancreas, and skin obtained from these lacZ-Tg rats, and moderate lacZ expression was observed in the liver, spleen, kidney, and cartilage. In contrast, brain, vessels, lung, adrenal ...
1. Three bacterial phytases derived from Bacillus, Escherichia coli or Klebsiella were compared with a phytase derived from Aspergillus niger in vitro and in vivo. 2. The in vitro results indicated that Aspergillus, E. coli and Klebsiella phytase displayed their activity optima in an acid pH range while Bacillus phytase did so in neutral pH. 3. The trials also revealed that only Bacillus phytase is more resistant to heat treatments, while E. coli and Klebsiella phytases are more stable against p ...
Diarrhea caused by the red alga Gracilaria coronopifolia poisoning was investigated in mice. The target site of a lethal dose was the whole small intestine where the toxin caused bleeding, resulting in hemorrhagic shock. With a sublethal dose, diarrhea appeared about 4.5 h after i.p. injection and continued for about 4 h intermittently. The site of diarrhea was the large intestine, where the submucosa first accumulated fluid from edema. Then the fluid moved into the lamina propria, the surface e ...
We characterize the integrated response of a rat host to the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica using a combination of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic profiles (liver, kidney, intestine, brain, spleen, plasma, urine, feces) and multiplex cytokine markers of systemic inflammation. Multivariate mathematical models were built to describe the main features of the infection at the systems level. In addition to the expected modulation of hepatic choline and energy metabolism, we found signifi ...
The pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in man are described. Pronounced interindividual variation in circulating isoniazid concentration and clearance which occur after dosing with the drug are associated with hereditary differences in the acetylator status. The variations in rate of isoniazid inactivation and elimination in different (rapid and slow) acetylator phenotypes are primarily due to differences in the rate of acetylation of isoniazid by a genetically controlled polymorphic N-acetyltransfer ...
OBJECTIVE To investigate the significance of bcl-10 protein expression in extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. METHODS Sixty-two cases of MALT lymphoma were reviewed and immunohistochemical studies for bcl-10 and Ki-67 were performed. RESULTS Sixty out of the 62 cases studied (96.8%) were positive for bcl-10. Thirty-three (53.2%) showed bcl-10 expression in both the nuclei and cytoplasm, while 27 cases (43.6%) showed only cytoplasmic ...
Cytotoxic drug-induced nausea and vomiting are the side effects most feared by cancer patients. Emesis is an instinctive defense reaction caused by the somatoautonomic nerve reflex, which is integrated in the medulla oblongata. Emesis caused by cytotoxic drugs such as cisplatin is associated with an increase in the concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the intestine and the brainstem. It is proposed that cytotoxic drugs evoke 5-HT release from the enterochromaffin (EC) cells in the inte ...
Human subjects were infused intraduodenally with either lecithin (150 mg/kg/hr) or safflower oil (100 mg/kg/hr)of similar fatty acid composition, and plasma lipoproteins were studied when constant plasma lipid levels were reached. Both types of fat induced increases of lipoproteins of Sf > 400 (chylomicrons) and Sf 20--400 (VLDL). Lecithin infusions produced increases predominantly in VLDL, whereas infusion of safflower oil induced mainly chylomicrons. Chylomicrons derived from lecithin were ...
The fluorescence histochemical method has been used to examine the adrenergic innervation of the proximal colon of the guinea-pig. Previous investigations have shown that the adrenergic fibres of the gastrointestinal tract arise from extrinsic ganglia. However, in this work it is shown that adrenergic nerve cells are found in the myenteric plexus of the proximal colon and that these cells provide varicose terminals about ganglion cells in the nodes of the plexus. About 75% of the nodes of the my ...
The life history ofAllocreadium handiai, found in the intestine of the freshwater fishChanna punctata, has been elucidated experimentally. The miracidia develop and hatch from the eggs in 7 to 12 days. The operculate snailAlocinma travancorica acts as the first intermediate host, inside which the miracidium develops through two generations of rediae. The ophthalmoxiphidiocercous cercariae escape fromA. travancorica and encyst in the same or other species of snail such asGyraulus convexiusculus, ...
The retention times of fluid and particles of different lengths were measured in the digestive tract of the llama. PEG was used as a fluid marker; hay particles were labelled with cerium or samarium and the samples were determined by neutron activation analysis. In compartments 1 and 2 the retention time of fluid (9.7 hr) was significantly shorter than that of particles having a length of 0.2-1.0 cm (19.2 hr) and 2.5-4.0 cm (25.0 hr). In the intestine slightly significant differences in the rete ...
Influx ofd-aspartate (d-Asp),l-glutamate (l-Glu), and serine (Ser) across the brush-border membrane of the intact mucosa from rabbit ileum has been examined. l-Glu influx is chloride independent and completely sodium dependent.d-Asp andl-Glu share a transport system with a maximum transport rate of 1 μmol ⋅ cm-2 ⋅ h-1and an apparent affinity constant ( K ½) of ∼0.3 mM. The function of this transport system is pH insensitive between pH 5.65 and 8.2, and bipolar amino acids do not affect t ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW In this article, we provide an update of the latest findings related to the innate immunity in the small intestine. In particular, we will focus on innate immune receptors and antimicrobial strategies that keep luminal bacteria and viral pathogens under control to avoid mucosal damage. These strategies include IgA secretion and antimicrobial peptides produced by Paneth cells, and downregulation or anergy of the innate immune receptors themselves. RECENT FINDINGS Pattern-recog ...
To study hyperplasia of peptidergic nerves purported to be diagnostic of Crohn's disease, we determined the distribution and concentrations of gut neuropeptides in specimens of normal intestine, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Tissue specimens obtained at surgery were dissected into the mucosal-submucosal and muscularis externa layers, and immunoreactive gut neuropeptides were acid-extracted for measurement by radioimmunoassay. The immunoreactive species were characterized by column chr ...
Vascular ectasia is a well-established cause of obscure gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The primary method of diagnosis is mesenteric arteriography, which demonstrates a pattern of blush or intraluminal extravasation, early venous filling and microvascular distention. The most common location for this lesion is the cecum although small bowel lesions also are recognized. The following is a case of vascular ectasia affecting the jejunum, in which undescribed microphleboliths were found on microscopic ...
Panfuran-S in the diet produced a high incidence of invasive and metastatic adenocarcinomas of the duodenum and the jejunum in outbred Wistar rats. Depressed growth and incidence of cancer production were dose-dependent. Adenocarcinomas of the duodenum were present in 2 of 18 (11%) rats that received 1,750 ppm 3-di(hydroxymethyl)amino-6-(5-nitro-2-furylethenyl)-1,2,4-triazine (DHNT) in the diet and in 11 of 19 (58%) rats that received 3,500 ppm DHNT. Adenocarcinomas of the jejunum were present i ...
The organization of autonomic nerve structures in the large intestine of chinchilla was investigated using histochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The myenteric plexus formed network nodes of cholinergic neurocyte agglomerations connected with bundles of nerve fibres and localized between the circular and longitudinal layers of the smooth muscles. The highest density of myenteric plexus was observed in the rectum. The different densities of myenteric plexus in subsequent parts of the large ...
Vomitus and anorexia is a frequent reason for presentation of cats at any age at the veterinarian. When an underlying ileus is suspected the risk of a neoplasia is considered to be high, especially in older patients. Due to high cost for diagnostics and treatment and a guarded prognosis owners frequently opt for euthanasia of those animals without verification of the tentative diagnosis. In this cat the ileus was caused by hairfollicles in form of a foreign body granuloma in the intestinal mucos ...
The transport of thiamine across the intestine has been characterized in rats but has not been adequately studied in humans. To determine the kinetics of thiamine intestinal transport directly in humans, mucosal tissues were obtained during routine endoscopy from normal-appearing sites at the second portion of the duodenum. With 3H-dextran as the marker of adherent volume, the uptake of 14C-thiamine hydrochloride by the excised mucosa was measured in vitro. By this method thiamine uptake was lin ...
The aim of the present study was to describe the deep muscular plexus of the pig duodenum and to characterize its cellular components. Numerous nerve varicosities have been detected in the deep muscular plexus using anti-synaptophysin antibodies. Nerve fibres were also detected here in the outer circular muscle layer, whereas no nerve fibres were observed in the inner circular muscle layer. In the deep muscular plexus, nerve fibres projected to interstitial cells which were characterized at the ...
Twelve Florida native wethers were given ammonium metavandate, calcium orthovanadate and calcium pyrovanadate by capsule in a study to examine the toxicity of the compounds. The initial daily dosage of 100 mg elemental vanadium was increased by 50 mg at 2-d intervals for an assessment not only of the toxic effects, but also to determined the amount that caused a decline in feed intake to 25% of that of control animals. The initial decline in feed intake was observed at 400 to 500 mg vanadium/d ( ...
Normal functioning of the urinary bladder and the distal gut is an essential part of daily physiological activity coordinated by the peripheral and central nervous systems. Pathological changes in one of these organs may induce the development of cross-organ sensitization in the pelvis and underlie clinical co-morbidity of genitourinary and GI dysfunctions. Experimental human and animal data suggest that the bladder and distal colon interact under both normal and pathological conditions, however ...
THE females of insect parasitic nematodes of the order Tylenchida are bizarre in form and live in the haemocoels of their hosts1–3. After the infective larva enters the haemocoel it usually moults, grows rapidly and becomes sexually mature. Its feeding apparatus quickly degenerates, the mouth and anus often disappear and if the intestine persists it loses its connexion with the oesophagus4 when food must presumably be absorbed through the body wall. In keeping with this function the external s ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of "[Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the adaptation of the functioning intestine and the excluded intestine after jejunoileal bypass]." by Ezio Lattuada et al. ...
This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the interactions between dietary isoflavones and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) G2 efflux transporter, which is also named the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Expressed in a variety of organs including the liver, kidneys, intestine, and placenta, BCRP mediates the disposition and excretion of numerous endogenous chemicals and xenobiotics. Isoflavones are a class of naturallyoccurring compounds that are found at high concentrations in ...
The mitochondrial carrier homologue 2 (MTCH2) has been shown to be essential for embryogenesis in mice, and variants in the MTCH2 locus have been linked to obesity in humans. Here, we investigated the importance of mtch2 for embryogenesis and adipocyte formation in zebrafish in vivo. We show that mtch2 is conserved in zebrafish and broadly expressed during embryogenesis. Knock-down of mtch2 results in impaired development of liver and intestine, and is associated with a reduced number of adipocy ...
PURPOSE Since 1994, we devised and have continued to develop a percutaneous trans esophageal gastro-tubing (PTEG) as an effective technique to drain gastrointestinal contents of critical patients suffering from gastric carcinoma. Here we report our satisfactory experience with a critical gastric cancer patient for whom we improved QOL by the application of the PTEG technique. The patient suffered from severe stenosis or obstruction of the digestive tract. This method was found to be effective en ...
Human absorption studies are used to test new drug candidates for their bioavailability in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract. In order to replace invasive techniques (e.g. oral or rectal intubation) a variety of externally controlled capsule-based drug release systems has been developed. Most of these use ionizing radiation, internal batteries, heating elements or even chemicals for the localization and disintegration process of the capsule. This embodies potential harms for volunt ...
(GSH)-dependent antioxidant system is modulated in irradiated tissue and serum even after 24h of irradiation. However, dose-dependent effect on the system has not been clarified and there is no report on effect of irradiation to urinary GSH-dependent enzyme activities. Therefore, in present study, rats were exposed to a single X-irradiation at several doses; 1, 3, 5, and 7 Gy, and after 24h of irradiation, each liver, kidney, testis, and small intestine was exenterated and GSH content and activi ...
The regulation of cell cycle rate is essential for the correct timing of proliferation and differentiation during development. Changes to cell cycle rate can have profound effects on the size, shape and cell types of a developing organ. We previously identified a zebrafish mutant ceylon (cey) that has a severe reduction in T cells and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Here we find that the cey phenotype is due to absence of the gene transducin (beta)-like 3 (tbl3). The tbl3 homolog in ...