trafficking (Total 2935 Papers Found)

Lung cancer is the second most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world. Moreover, despite advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the death rate from lung cancer remains high and the reported overall five-year survival rate is only 15%. Thus, novel treatments for this devastating disease are urgently needed. Chemokines, a family of 48 chemotactic cytokines interacts with their 7 transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, to guide immune ce ...
Leukocyte migration inhibitory factor assay was employed as an in vitro diagnostic aid in nickel dermatitis, the second most common contact dermatitis in North America. 15 patch test-positive and 5 patch test-negative patients, all giving a past history suggestive of nickel dermatitis, were investigated. Significant inhibition of leukocyte migration in both groups of patients was obtained only with nickel sulfate-albumin conjugate and not with unconjugated nickel sulfate. Specificity of this sys ...
Tuberculosis is characterized by the presence of activated mononuclear cells both in the peripheral circulation and in pleural fluid. Expression and up-regulation of adhesion molecules is the basis of cell-cell adhesion in granuloma formation and in leukocyte migration to the inflammatory site. Soluble isoforms of adhesion molecules have been described, and their expression at high levels indicated an activated state. The purpose of this study was to evaluate levels of soluble adhesion molecules ...
Distinct sets of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) are distributed to specific intracellular compartments and catalyze membrane fusion events. Although the central role of these proteins in membrane fusion is established in nonplant systems, little is known about their role in the early secretory pathway of plant cells. Analysis of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome reveals 54 genes encoding SNARE proteins, some of which are expect ...
In the present study, histopathological analysis of rat mesentery was used to quantify the effect of two anti-inflammatory agents, dexamethasone (Dex) and pertussis toxin (Ptx), on leukocyte migration. The intravenous injection of Dex (1 mg/kg) and Ptx (1,200 ng) 1 h prior to the intraperitoneal injection of the inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) significantly reduced the neutrophil diapedesis (LPS: Ptx = 0.86 +/- 0.19 and Dex = 0.35 +/- ...
Thirty patients with lung cancer were studied using the leukocyte migration-inhibition assay. Cryostat sections of autologous and homologous carcinoma tissues and normal lung were used as antigens. Although no inhibition of migration was seen using autologous cancer tissues, seven of 30 patients (23%) demonstrated inhibition of leukocyte migration in response to homologous cancer sections. No association with clinical stage was appreciated. Seven patients demonstrated enhanced migration to homol ...
Some 21 million adults and children are labor-trafficked or sex-trafficked through force, fraud, or coercion. In recognition of the interface between trafficking victims and the healthcare setting, over the last 10 years there has been a notable increase in training of health care professionals (HCPs) on human trafficking (HT) and its health implications. Many organizations have developed curricula and offered training in various clinical settings. However, methods and content of this education ...
Chemokines are small 8-12-kDa chemotactic cytokines that were initially characterized for their ability to control leukocyte trafficking and, to a lesser extent, leukocyte function. Lymphotactin was first described as a T lymphocyte-specific chemotactic factor. However, it has since been shown to also be a potent attractant for natural killer (NK) cells. The chemotactic properties of lymphotactin suggested from in vitro data prompted us to study the in vivo activity of this chemokine. We constru ...
An effective response to injury or inflammation requires leukocyte migration from the endovascular compartment into areas of inflammation. This process requires the appropriate expression of adhesion molecules, which mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. A better understanding of the roles of adhesion molecules in normal and pathological conditions might lead to the development of more effective therapeutic interventions. Features of several classes of adhesion molecules, ...
Arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes) express large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel α and auxiliary β1 subunits that modulate arterial contractility. In arterial myocytes, β1 subunits are stored within highly mobile rab11A-positive recycling endosomes. In contrast, BKα subunits are primarily plasma membrane-localized. Trafficking pathways for BKα and whether physiological stimuli that regulate arterial contractility alter BKα localization in arterial myocytes are unclear. ...
Inflammation is a complex defense mechanism characterized by leukocyte migration from the vasculature into damaged tissues and subsequent deposition of extracellular matrix resulting in tissue repair. The inflammatory process is generally categorized into an acute, rapid response, and a persistent but slowly evolving chronic condition, which may progress into inflammatory diseases. An excessive deposition of extracellular matrix leads to overgrowth, hardening, and/or scarring of tissues, defined ...
BACKGROUND Illicit drug markets are a key component of the risk environment surrounding injection drug use. However, relatively few studies have explored how injection drug users' (IDUs) involvement in drug dealing shapes their experiences of drug market-related harm. This exploratory qualitative study aims to understand IDUs' dealing activities and roles, as well as the perceived benefits and risks related to participation in illicit drug markets, including experiences of drug market violence. ...
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs; Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis) are chronically relapsing inflammatory disorders of the intestine and/or colon. The precise etiology of IBD remains unclear, but it is thought that a complex interplay between various factors including genetic predisposition, the host immune system, and the host response to luminal microbes play a role in disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, numerous lines of evidence have implicated the accumulation of large numbers o ...
The interference of the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW B70C ((E)-N-(3-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy)phenyl]-1(R,S)-methyl prop-2-enyl)-N-hydroxyurea), with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin)-induced lung leucocyte sequestration and microvascular albumin exchanges was evaluated in the anaesthetised guinea-pig using radioactive tracers, in parallel to the effects on cell counts in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, blood tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) content, secretion of phospholipase A2 an ...
The integrin alpha9 subunit forms a single heterodimer, alpha9beta1. The alpha9 subunit is most closely related to the alpha4 subunit, and like alpha4 integrins, alpha9beta1 plays an important role in leukocyte migration. The alpha4 cytoplasmic domain preferentially enhances cell migration and inhibits cell spreading, effects that depend on interaction with the adaptor protein, paxillin. To determine whether the alpha9 cytoplasmic domain has similar effects, a series of chimeric and deleted alph ...
Combinations of leukocyte attractant ligands and cognate heptahelical receptors specify the systemic recruitment of circulating cells by triggering integrin-dependent adhesion to endothelial cells, supporting extravasation, and directing specific intratissue localization via gradient-driven chemotaxis. Chemoattractant receptors also control leukocyte egress from lymphoid organs and peripheral tissues. In this article, we summarize the fundamental mechanics of leukocyte trafficking, from the evol ...
BACKGROUND There are problems in diagnosis of allergy to amide-type local anesthetic agents (ALAs), because definitive diagnosis is not obtained by in vivo tests, which are used for the diagnosis. Consequently, patients may be exposed to risk. There are few diagnoses based on in vitro tests, and there are almost no relevant studies. METHODS Authors examined involvement of allergic reaction using the leukocyte migration test (LMT) through multiple standpoints in 43 patients who underwent suspec ...
Selectin ligands are glycan structures that participate in leukocyte trafficking and inflammation. At least 6 ST3Gal sialyltransferases (I-VI) have been identified that may contribute to selectin ligand formation. However, it is not known which of these sialyltransferases are involved in vivo and whether they may differentially regulate selectin function. We have produced and characterized mice genetically deficient in ST3Gal-I, ST3Gal-II, ST3GalIII, and ST3Gal-IV. Unlike mice bearing severe def ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of "Modulation of human leucocyte migration inhibitory factor (LIF) by 3',5'-cyclic AMP, 3',5'-cyclic GMP and agents known to influence intracellular cyclic nucleotide metabolism." by Klaus Bendtzen et al. ...
Pulmonary immunity depends on the ability of leukocytes to neutralize potentially harmful and frequent insults to the lung, and appropriate regulation of leukocyte migration and adhesion is integral to this process. Arhgef1 is a hematopoietic-restricted signaling molecule that regulates leukocyte migration and integrin-mediated adhesion. To explore a possible regulatory role for Arhgef1 in pulmonary immunity we examined the lung and its leukocytes in wild-type and Arhgef1-deficient animals. Here ...
Compelling evidence implicates chemokines in the induction of leukocyte emigration from blood into tissues. This arguably most fundamental effect of chemokines is accomplished by triggering cognate classical G-protein-coupled chemokine receptors on the leukocyte surface. In vitro, these same receptors mediate leukocyte migration; however, the mechanisms of chemokine-induced migration differ between in-vivo and in-vitro settings. Leukocyte egress from blood is greatly influenced by haemodynamic c ...
In the model of the reaction of human blood leucocyte migration inhibition the in vitro study was conducted on some mechanisms of blocking and enhancement effects of the serum in 54 tumor patients. Both effects were shown to be specific to an antigen. The enhancement effect could render a nonspecific action on intact cells in the presence of the corresponding antigen. This effect is thermolabile and may occur due to the interaction with cells. The blocking effect is thermostabile and may be real ...
Intravital imaging of the superficial brain tissue in mice represents a powerful tool for the dissection of the cellular and molecular cues underlying inflammatory and infectious central nervous system (CNS) diseases. We present here a step-by-step protocol that will enable a non-specialist to set up a two-photon brain-imaging model. The protocol offers a two-part approach that is specifically optimized for imaging leukocytes but can be easily adapted to answer varied CNS-related biological ques ...
Adhesion molecule mediated leukocyte migration into the central nervous system is considered to be a critical step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We measured plasma levels of the soluble adhesion molecules sPECAM-1, sP-selectin and sE-selectin in 166 MS patients and in 36 healthy blood donors with ELISA. sPECAM-1, sP-selectin and sE-selectin plasma concentrations showed a significant increase in the relapsing-remitting disease course of MS and were elevated during relapse. These ...
At sites of inflammation and in normal immune surveillance, chemokines direct leukocyte migration across the endothelium. Many cell types that are extravascular can produce chemokines, and for these mediators to directly elicit leukocyte migration from the blood, they would need to reach the luminal surface of the endothelium. This article reviews the evidence that endothelial cells are active in transcytosing chemokines to their luminal surfaces, where they are presented to leukocytes. The endo ...
In the paracortex of the lymph node (LN), T zone fibroblastic reticular cells (TRCs) orchestrate an immune response by guiding lymphocyte migration both physically, by creating three-dimensional (3D) cell networks, and chemically, by secreting the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 that direct interactions between CCR7-expressing cells, including mature dendritic cells and naive T cells. TRCs also enwrap matrix-based conduits that transport fluid from the subcapsular sinus to high endothelial venules, a ...
Regulation of leukocyte recruitment is an important determinant of the host response to microbial infection. Because tissue infiltration by inflammatory cells represents a potential source of unnecessary tissue damage, the process may be controlled by modulating the expression of chemoattractants and the receptors through which they promote directed leukocyte migration. In the present report, we show that expression of the receptor for chemotactic formylated peptides (FPR1)is negatively regulate ...
Anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Morus indica Linn. was studied in wistar rats using the carrageenan induced left hind paw edema, carrageenan induced pleurisy and cotton pellet induced granuloma model. The ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited carrageenan induced rat paw edema. It also showed an inhibitory effect on leukocyte migration and a reduction on the pleural exudates as well as reduction on the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma me ...
The cellular basis of metastasis is poorly understood. An important step to understanding this process is to be able to visualize the routes by which cancer cells migrate from the primary tumor to various distant sites to eventually form metastasis. Our laboratory previously developed single-cell in vivo imaging using fluorescent proteins to label cancer cells. In the present study, using PC-3 human prostate cancer cells labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and orthotopic tumor transplan ...
It is well known that alterations in splanchnic organ perfusion and/or immune regulation may produce inflammatory tissue injury similar to that observed in several human disorders such as ischemia and reperfusion injury, food allergies, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and graft-versus-host disease. Mouse models have been tremendously important in defining the roles of the circulation, leukocyte trafficking, inflammatory mediator generation, immune regulation and the intestinal microbiota in ...
In 25 patients with primary and 24 patients with recurrent herpetic corneal disease the cell-mediated immunity to Herpes simplex virus antigen (type I) was measured using a leukocyte migration inhibition assay. After a period of one to 24 months 25 of the patients were tested again. The diagnostic possibilities offered by this method, especially in respect of control of immune-stimulating therapy, and its pitfalls are discussed. ...
Although the IL-6-related cytokine oncostatin M (OSM) affects processes associated with disease progression, the specific function of OSM in the face of an inflammatory challenge remains unclear. In this report, a peritoneal model of acute inflammation was used to define the influence of OSM on chemokine-mediated leukocyte recruitment. When compared with wild-type and IL-6-deficient mice, peritoneal inflammation in oncostatin M receptor-beta-deficient (OSMR-KO) mice resulted in enhanced monocyti ...
Alpha-pinene (PIN) is a monoterpene derived from essential oils of plants. Some biological activities are associated with PIN, such as antibacterial, antihypernociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. This study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of PIN on the leukocyte behavior through in vivo and in vitro leukocyte migration. In the cell viability assay, PIN (3, 10, 30, 90 μg/mL) showed low cytotoxicity and in the acute toxicity in mice, no deaths or other signs of ...
Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mediates the firm adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells. In ulcerative colitis (UC), ICAM-1 is suggested also to be involved in the further migration of leukocytes toward the epithelial lining, and in colonic tissue it has been reported to be expressed by cell types other than endothelial cells. This study aimed at determining the ultrastructural localization of ICAM-1 on cells belonging to the colonic mucosa from patients with UC. Colonic biopsie ...
In acute pancreatitis, ICAM-1 is upregulated in various organs and contributes to the development of organ injury. To investigate the effects of pancreatic proteases on ICAM-1 expression and their role in the early process of leukocyte migration, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with serum subjected to limited trypsin digestion and Wistar rats were injected with trypsin. Significant upregulation of membrane-bound ICAM-1 was seen on HUVECs incubated with trypsinated ...
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) play important roles in many diseases. However, their roles in sporadic thoracic aortic aneurysm (STAA) are unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to construct an lncRNA-mRNA network and dissect lncRNAs that might contribute to the pathogenesis of STAA. METHODS Differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs between four ascending aortic specimens derived from STAA and four controls from patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of "[Effect of a uniform constant magnetic field on leukocytes. Study of leukocyte migration inhibition in healthy subjects and patients with primary liver neoplasms]." by A Bellossi et al. ...
Preconceptive health encompasses male and female reproductive capability. In females, this takes into account each of the stages of the estrous cycle. Microvascular reactivity varies throughout the estrous cycle in response to hormonal changes and in preparation for pregnancy. Microvascular alterations in response to engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure have been described within 24-h of inhalation; however, the impact upon the uterine vasculature at differing estrous stages and at late-stage ...
The discovery that chemokines and their receptors are expressed by a variety of cell types within the normal adult central nervous system (CNS) has led to an expansion of their repertoire as molecular interfaces between the immune and nervous systems. Thus, CNS chemokines are now divided into those molecules that regulate inflammatory cell migration into the CNS and those that initiate CNS repair from inflammation-mediated tissue damage. Work in our laboratory throughout the past decade has soug ...
ABCG2, a metabolite and xenobiotic transporter located at the plasma membrane (predominantly in barrier tissues and progenitor cells), undergoes a direct progressive endocytosis process from plasma membrane to intracellular compartments upon binding of 5D3 monoclonal antibody. This antibody is specific to an external epitope on the protein molecule and locks it in a discrete conformation within its activity cycle, presumably providing a structural trigger for the observed internalization phenome ...
Recombinant wild-type rabbit osteopontin (rOP) and the protein with an aspartate-to-glutamate transposition induced by a point mutation in the rabbit OP cDNA within the Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) sequence were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. P388D1 cells bound rOP in a saturable manner. rOP induced adhesion and haptotaxis of P388D1 cells, whereas mutated rabbit OP (rOPmut) did not. Anti-rOP IgG F(ab')2 and synthetic GRGDS peptide inhibited rOP-mediated adhesion and ha ...
Cxcl8 is a pro-inflammatory chemokine, best known for its role in neutrophil chemotaxis. Signalling through its receptors, Cxcr1 and Cxcr2, is induced by inflammatory stimuli evoked by microbial, chemical or environmental stress, and hormonal signals. While it is recognised that Cxcl8 signalling is active in the gut mucosa, this is not as well understood as its role in leukocyte trafficking. Here, we report the characterisation of genes encoding the zebrafish Cxcl8, Cxcr1 and Cxcr2. By a combina ...
The chemokines regulate immune cell migration under inflammatory and physiological conditions. We investigated a CC chemokine gene (RcCC1) from cobia (Rachycentron canadum). The full-length RcCC1 cDNA is comprised 673 nucleotides and encodes a four-cysteine arrangement 99-amino-acid protein typical of known CC chemokines. The genomic DNA of RcCC1 consists of three exons and two introns. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RcCC1 was closest to the MIP group of CC chemokines. Quantitative real-time ...
  • David A. Jackson,
  • APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • 2004
The pace of research into the lymphatic system continues to accelerate with the availability of new molecular markers. One such marker, LYVE-1, the lymphatic receptor for the extracellular matrix mucopolysaccharide hyaluronan, has been a key component of many important studies on embryonic and tumour-induced lymphangiogenesis, and continues to be used for the detection and isolation of lymphatic endothelial cells. However, LYVE-1 is interesting in its own right. Being a member of the Link protei ...
The antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) inactivates NE released during central and peripheral neuronal activity by transport into presynaptic cells. Altered NE clearance due to dysfunction of NET has been associated with the development of mental illness and cardiovascular diseases. NET activity in vivo is influenced by stress, neuronal activity, hormones and drugs. We investigated the mechanisms of Ca2+ regulation of NET and found that Ca2+ influenced both Vmax and Km ...